This sample Social Work Education Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Like other free research paper examples it is not a custom research paper. If you need help with writing your assignment, please use research paper writing services and buy a research paper on any topic.
Social work education prepares people to practice as social workers, and also a social institution incorporating university and social agency interests. It creates practitioners’ professional identities, bringing together academic learning with practice and life experience. Distinctive models of social work education exist in English-speaking, European and resource-poor countries. Attempts to create global standards for curricula and organization of social work education are contested. Practice experience in social agencies uses supervision linking administrative checking of actions, education, and personal support. Practice experience generates tensions between universities and social agencies about social work educations’ aims.
- Social Work Education and Social Work Identity
- University and Social Agency Contributions
- Models of Social Work Education
- History of Social Work Education Structures
- Global Standards for Curricula: Internationalist and Hegemonic Views
- The Social Work Education Process
- Transformations in Identity
- Life and Practice Experience
- Academic Learning
- Practice and Field Education and Supervision
- Lifelong Learning, Critical Reflection and the Learning Organization
Social Work Education and Social Work Identity
Social work education is the process of preparing people to practice as social workers, and developing their capacity to practice through learning and personal development. This process starts prior to professional qualification and continues during qualifying education and through lifelong professional development. Educational processes, therefore, help to create the professional and personal identities of social work practitioners.
As with all professional education, social work education also contributes to the formation of the identity of the profession, by its education curricula and the learning processes that are used. By virtue of their shared involvement, the personnel engaged in social work education in universities and in social agencies also develop a shared social identity, which constitutes an identifiable grouping within the social work profession. Thus, ‘social work education,’ the process, interacts with ‘social work education,’ the social institution, and both contribute to the identity of social work and contribute to social policymaking, higher education and social agencies.
University and Social Agency Contributions
Social work education is usually provided in universities or institutions providing education at a higher education level; ‘universities’ in this research paper includes other higher education institutions. Social work qualifications, therefore, lead to a degree-level qualification and in some countries, is also or mainly available at masters level.
Like other education for professions involved in helping human beings, social work education incorporates contributions from personnel in both educational institutions and social agencies. This is for three reasons. First, many people enter social work having been informal caregivers in domestic settings or paraprofessional or volunteer workers in social agencies, so their early experience as helpers or in agencies forms the basis of all later education. Low-skilled or volunteer jobs with little or no formal training is not regarded as social work, but is variously called paraprofessional work, social care practice, or more broadly ‘care work’ (Boddy et al., 2006). Paid caregivers employed by individuals as ‘personal assistants’ are a recent innovation because of ‘cash for care’ policies in many countries (Ungerson, 1999; Leece and Peace, 2010). Such policies provide grant aid for people to employ their own assistance, rather than staff employed by social agencies organizing services in people’s own homes. If such staff or volunteers then decide to seek qualification as social workers, their experience and initial training contributes to the process of qualifying and postqualification social work education that they participate in, and may constrain or enhance social work education accordingly.
The second reason why social work education incorporates input from outside educational institutions is that most social work education includes work experience in social agencies. This generates continuing relationships between educational institutions and social agencies and creates a group of personnel concerned with such ‘practice education’ or ‘practice teaching’ or ‘field education’ or ‘student supervision’ – the designation of this part of social work education varies in different countries. These educational experiences, the specialized personnel involved, and the links between social agencies and educational institutions through which they are organized produce struggles for influence over curricula and learning processes and over policy-making about the balance of academic and social agencies.
The third reason for the links between educational institutions and social agencies is that, once qualified, practitioners continue in a process of personal professional development and lifelong education that sometimes involves engagement with educational institutions. Many universities and other educational institutions provide advanced postqualifying and doctoral education in social work as part of that engagement (Laot, 2001; Scourfield and Maxwell, 2008).
Models of Social Work Education
A number of models of social work education exist, and while there is increasing international mobility in the workforce, little research exists to understand differences (Spolander et al., 2011). Different forms of social work exist and while most social workers have some education in all, many countries emphasize one or permit specialization. The most widespread practice in developed countries is practical and psychological help provided through interpersonal relationships with individuals and families, usually called casework until the 1970s; this is what most people understand by ‘social work’ practice. Groupwork is a development of this, bringing together individuals to meet in small groups, typically of between six and twelve. Groups may focus on changing behavior or bring together people with similar social difficulties to help and support each other, or engage in activities that have educational or personal development objectives (Papell and Rothman, 1966). Groupwork is also important in residential care, where people who are unable for various reasons to care for themselves live in communal settings. Community work involves helping people come together to identify issues of concern and take action to resolve them. This is increasingly called ‘macro practice,’ since it deals with larger populations than individual, family, or groupwork practice (Payne, 2014). In European countries, there is also an important distinction between social pedagogy or social education, and social work or social assistance (Boddy and Statham, 2009). Social pedagogy has a conception of social work as a positive educational process for individuals and groups with shared interests. It thus avoids the potentially stigmatizing connotations of Anglo- American social work traditions that see social work as a process for resolving problems and most clients of social workers as being socially excluded. An important source of social pedagogy is a group of German philosophers who aimed to develop those social aspects of education that particularly focus on poor people in societies (Lorenz, 1994: 91–97). Social pedagogy is used particularly with children in residential and day care and in community work in which individual and collective self-development and education interact.
Social development is the main form of social work in resource-poor countries where economic development is an important national priority and seeks to incorporate social progress alongside it. African, Asian, and Latin American social work education often contains a strong and sometimes overriding focus on social development (Midgley and Conley, 2010).
History of Social Work Education Structures
Social work education emerged from training courses for employees and volunteers provided by major charitable agencies in the US and European countries in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries. The charity organization societies operating in large cities at that time favored developing investigatory skills and appropriate moral attitudes among suitable middle-class women through supervision in the field. However, concerns about the quality of charity workers and a wish to claim expertise through establishing a scientific basis for casework methods and underlying political policies opposed to Fabian ideas of social reform led to the establishment of more academic courses (Jones, 1976). These built links with local universities and higher education institutes. The first courses were established in Amsterdam, London, New York, and Chicago in the period 1895–1910 (Kendall, 2000). During or after the first world war, as social work increasingly became a paid occupation, national associations of schools of social work, and international association of schools of social work (IASSW) emerged at the international social work fortnight in Paris in 1928 (Kendall, 1978). Such initiatives were extended to Australia, Canada, India, and a few French- and English-speaking African and Asian colonies over the next 10 years.
After the establishment of European welfare states following the Second World War, and the development of casework techniques, particularly in the US, social work education expanded both in universities and in specialized higher education institutions focusing on professional education in some countries. A network of universities and colleges in Africa, Asia, and South America began to develop courses similar to those in Europe and the US until the 1960s. This was also associated with the expansion of university social science teaching during that decade. There was continued differentiation as social work education in the developing world placed a greater emphasis on social development. These extensions of social work education were encouraged by the US Fulbright Fellowships, Canadian technical assistance, the Catholic International Union for Social Service, and United Nations’ initiatives in family planning and eventually in community development (Younghusband, 1963).
Countries dominated by communist regimes de-emphasized the importance of social work in the period 1950–90, favoring instead social programs such as extensive day care and nursery provision for children and support for unemployed, sick, disabled, and retired people through workplace or trade union social support (Simpura, 1995). From the 1990s onward, former Soviet countries, Eastern and Central European countries, and China all developed extensive networks of social work education as a way of promoting social liberalization, improvements in large oppressive residential care institutions providing for people with mental illnesses and intellectual and physical disabilities and in training undereducated workforces hitherto employed in public welfare services (Payne, 2005: 227–241).
Global Standards for Curricula: Internationalist and Hegemonic Views
The interpretation of these developments is contested (Payne, 2005). The internationalist view (Kendall, 1978) proposes that there has been one stream of progress in the development of the profession and its education, based on a universal social science, leading to a coherent paradigm of social work that is relevant everywhere but adapted to fit particular national systems of welfare. This view is reinforced by the way in which former communist regimes adopted Western patterns of social work education in the 1990s. However, alternative views (Payne, 2005; Payne and Askeland, 2008) propose that the internationalist view is hegemonic, with the dominance of Western and particularly American cultural values and professional assumptions leading to the inappropriate importation of models of practice on the unproven assumption that these are universal. This has been a particular issue in relation to the transfer of American models of casework in resource-poor countries (Midgley, 1981), when social development practice was more relevant. In the hegemonic view, different national welfare regimes draw on local cultural and social philosophies, incorporating elements of models of practice in use in other countries as these become available. There is evidence that this took place in the development of social work in the late nineteenth century, for example, in Japan, and in the differentiation of social work theory and education in the latter part of the twentieth century (Payne, 2005). The dominance of Western models often reflects colonial and postcolonial relationships between Western and resource-poor nations. The hegemonic view argues for understanding of the different cultural and service histories that inform local practice and for facilitating cultural translation between different national practices (Payne and Askeland, 2008).
A recent iteration of this debate has arisen in relation to the development of global standards of social work education, during the first decade of the twenty-first century, as international bodies in social work have sought to develop agreed standards (Sewpaul and Jones, 2005; Gray and Webb, 2008) and as communist and former Soviet countries have developed social work services.
The main area of debate is about Western cultural influence on the curriculum of social work courses, as against the assumed universality of research knowledge. Responding to concern about this issue, the global standards (International Federation of Social Workers, 2012) permit wide variation, allowing different national and cultural traditions to influence the curriculum in each country. The Standards propose that curricula should cover four main areas:
- the domain of the social work profession, for example, social structure and oppression, human behavior and development and the social environment, social work’s origins and purposes, social welfare policies;
- the domain of the social work professional, for example, the development of the self-reflective practitioner, the interaction of personal values, and life experience and practice;
- methods of social work practice, for example, assessment, relationship-building and helping processes, social work values and ethics, research methods;
- the paradigm of the social work profession, for example, the dignity and worth of all human beings, capacity-building and empowerment, advocacy, building strengths, respect for diversity.
National curriculum statements cover similar ground in different ways.
The Social Work Education Process
Transformations in Identity
Professional education is a process through which an individual’s personal identity is transformed so that it incorporates a professional identity as a social worker. Most elements of the global standards are less contested than the curriculum because they are focused on this process demonstrating a clear commitment to social work values, appropriate selection and learning processes, and fair assessment.
Three elements of the process move in parallel during a practitioner’s career:
- practice experience,
- life experience, and
- academic learning.
Each social worker brings together these three elements to create a unique personal identity as a social work practitioner, with links to an academic and professional identity. Postqualifying education often initiates or supports a practitioner in developing specialist emphases in their work, that further advances the formation of their personal academic and professional identities.
Each transformation in identity includes academic learning and the development of professional skills and values, but personal identity gained through life experience is crucial in social work education, prior to, during, and after any formal educational experience. This is because a social work practitioner incorporates their ‘self,’ for example, the experience that derives from their gender or ethnicity, as an aspect of their practice (Urdang, 2012). Practice involves modeling behavior and attitudes, using the practitioner’s self in a relationship with clients with whom they work. The relationship enables them to influence people who may be excluded from or reject social relationships, and research confirms the importance of honesty and genuineness in relationships between practitioners and clients (Carkhuff and Berenson, 1977) to enable this influence to succeed. Therefore, social workers must be genuinely engaged with the interests of their clients, and their self must be developed to achieve this.
Life and Practice Experience
The importance of the preprofessional personal identity in the formation of a practitioner’s professional identity means that even where it is not a formal requirement of entry, many applicants for admission to qualifying social work education find that personal life experiences or work experience motivate them to work and receive training in this field. Therefore, they bring into the education process experience of how people live and how social work is organized and practiced. Because students bring life or practice experience to, the education process requires social work education to use modes of adult learning (Knowles, 1984) that allow students to reflect on and incorporate this experience into the education process. This means that social work education is often problem based and collaborative rather than didactic, and also emphasizes equality, seeing teachers and learners and exploring knowledge and practice together. An experiment on a UK qualifying course developed ‘enquiry and action learning’ (Burgess, 1992), for example. It used a curriculum based on scenarios and problems encountered in practice, rather than on academic subjects, aiming to integrate academic teaching and practice learning, to build on the knowledge and skills students brought to the course, and to help them become self-directed lifelong learners, able to adapt to the changing demands that will be placed on them as professionals.
The importance of life experience in social work education also leads to a culture in which the personal suitability of applicants for admission to a course and of students during the course is an aspect of the assessment, which may lead to students being failed or excluded for personal rather than professional reasons.
Academic learning in social work education draws on a wide range of research and scholarship. Pawson et al.’s (2003) systematic review identifies five sources of knowledge, as follows:
- organizational knowledge,
- practitioner knowledge,
- policy community knowledge,
- research community knowledge, and
- user and caregiver knowledge.
This research indicates that conventional academic knowledge, based on journal and book publication, is not the only kind of knowledge that needs to be incorporated into social work education.
Moriarty’s (2011) systematic literature review for the English Department of Health summarizes the available research, and cites available studies, including relevant international research.
- The social sciences, in particular, psychology, sociology, and social policy – although a background in economics and political science also offers contextual understanding for implementing social science in practice. Organizational and management studies also play a part in understanding the social context in which social workers practice.
- Law includes law that governs the responsibilities and legal powers of social workers and law in which they might have to advise clients, such as social security, housing, and other legal rights.
- Practice skills deriving from the social work literature and from micro-psychology, include the main elements of any practice, involving assessing clients, planning appropriate action, intervening in social situations to help them, and monitoring and evaluating the outcomes of the intervention. It also includes skills in interpersonal communication and influence in working with clients and colleagues, also drawing on micro-psychology.
- Cognate professional fields offer understanding that may be transferred to social work from medicine, nursing, teaching, psychology, and skills in interprofessional and partnership working.
- Ethics and values teaching draws on cognate professional literature, including medical ethics, and on philosophy.
- Research appreciation and research methods teaching appropriate to the level of the course sufficient to enable practitioners to understand and critically evaluate research relevant to their practice. This teaching also contributes to practitioner’s ability to critically evaluate their practice either through personal research or by participating competently in agency and government quality assurance and evaluation research.
- Critical thinking and critical reflection skills enable practitioners to continue to be self-critical throughout their career (Fook and Gardner, 2007).
Academic learning in social work calls upon the full range of teaching methods commonplace in higher education, including lectures, seminars, and group discussions, together with individual and joint project work. At higher levels of education, this includes research projects, which may also have an integrative function. Practice skills are sometimes taught through skills laboratories, often assisted by video. These involve role-play scenarios to test out student skills and receive feedback, which aims to develop their competence. Agency staff, service users, and caregivers may also be involved in providing feedback to students on their performance in similar situations (Moriarty, 2011).
Practice and Field Education and Supervision
Moriarty (2011) documents a debate, however, about the effectiveness of laboratory teaching of interpersonal skills as compared with practice experience as a learning experience in social agency or field settings. There is a long history of research that suggests that social work students regard practice learning provided in agencies as the most important, enjoyable, or memorable element of their learning. Practice or field education enables students to observe the work of agencies and carry out research or organizational studies (Payne, 2004). It may also provide an important opportunity for international exchange (Payne and Askeland, 2008; Noble and Hendrickson, 2011).
In the Anglo-American model of social work education, a university typically (Bogo, 2010) organizes placements for its students in social agencies for substantial periods, sometimes amounting to half the course program. The most common arrangement is for an individual student to work in the agency, carrying out the same tasks as employees, and supervised by a social worker employed by the agency in doing so. A university staff member liaises with the agency supervisor. This experience allows students to apply and practice knowledge gained in the university setting, and gain experience in transferring academic knowledge to practice settings, and the supervisor assists them in doing so, eventually assessing their competence in practice. Other employees of the agency contribute to helping and assessing the student and provide experience in cooperating with colleagues. While the students undertake a full range of work, they do not carry a full workload, to facilitate the learning process.
Social work supervision, as it is provided both to practitioners and also to students, is a distinctive process containing three elements:
- Administration, checking that the social worker performs professional functions as required by the profession and the agency.
- Education, teaching the social worker knowledge, skills, practical techniques, and appropriate value orientations.
- Support, enabling the social worker to manage their personal reactions to their experiences in professional social work (Kadushin and Harkness, 2002).
This last element is necessary because experience of distressing circumstances, for example, events such as child abuse or bereavement, may be stressful and raise echoes of a practitioner’s own life experience in ways that might adversely affect their capacity to function as a social worker or their judgment. Such supervision continues throughout a social worker’s career, and experiencing it as part of social work education is an important socialization into the way in which practice is managed within the profession. The support and education elements are organized in an unusual way, compared with supervision in many health care professions, where they are often provided by a consultant independent of the practitioner’s employment. In social work, by contrast, it is typical for it to be provided by their manager. The student social work supervision arrangement mimics this professional convention (Carpenter et al., 2012; Hawkins and Shohet, 2012).
Practice or field education leads to an assessment of the student’s competence to practice, again mimicking the social work professional convention that supervision is management as well as education and support. Professional qualification usually requires successful completion of both this element of the course and also the academic program. While there is evidence that the involvement of field or practice educators increases the rage of skills and experience available to social work courses, research also suggests that some find it difficult to fail students in this element of the course (Moriarty, 2011).
The engagement of agencies in field and practice education makes the organization of placements and supervision a site of tension over the influence of field agencies on the curriculum and assessment of social work education. Most of this disagreement reflects uncertainty about the objective of qualifying education (Moriarty, 2011). The areas of disagreement lie in the wish of agency managements for graduates of social work qualifying education to have a high degree of procedural knowledge, ability to assess risk in difficult situations, and decide on appropriate interventions, as against the view of universities that a broader curriculum with transferable skills that practitioners can then build upon in their early practice experience is a more appropriate objective of qualifying education.
As a result of this tension about aims, the position of field or practice educators as part of social education can be ambivalent. They may lean toward loyalty toward the employer conception of social work education or to their position within social work education. The employer view is often represented on behalf of employers or mediated by staff involved in the management and delivery of training, including the organization of field or practice education and student supervision. A related area of difficulty is the internationally increasing use of competence frameworks in practice assessment. These measure outcomes of professional education, in place of guidance on the curriculum to be provided in the teaching of (that is, input to) courses and offer a detailed statement of what students are able to do, tested in a work setting. This emphasis on detailed specification and on outcomes is an implementation of managerialist approaches in New Public Management (NPM), a new settlement in the 1980s of relationships between the citizen and the State and between management, political control and professional responsibilities (Clarke and Newman, 1997). It arose from the neoliberal analysis that comprehensive welfare states on the European social model were not economically sustainable. Consequently, new forms of management were required to control the tendency to extend the coverage of the state and to manage professional activities so that they were more financially efficient, in particular, using quantitative techniques, such as work study (Pollitt, 1993). NPM has a view of management as a generic expertise in which management has its own knowledge base and skills. The debate about competence-based education focuses on how social work education may be developed to be strongly applicable in the context of agency definitions of the aims and content of social work. There has been a greater trend to managerial control by the center, rather than discretion to a local professional service, greater use of legal and procedural processes rather than professional discretion, and greater use of managerialist techniques, such as control by specification of standards, training competences, and performance indicators, rather than permitting the flexibility of discretion. Professional knowledge and skill is subordinated to management and financial control. Work activity becomes deskilled as professional tasks are fragmented. Initially, this is done by codifying and dividing up tasks into smaller components, which practitioners should be able to carry out, called competences.
Competences required as the outcome of education are identified through the functional assessment of what social workers do. These are formalized in occupational standards, which workers should be able to meet, and competences are derived from these which specify workers’ performance. Critics of this approach (for example, Dominelli, 1996) claim that organizing social work education through competence testing makes for a mechanistic approach to learning and assessment, which is inadequate for measuring professional knowledge and skills and professional judgment. Also, competence approaches minimize the importance of intellectual understanding and coherent analysis of the field of study; also that they reduce the importance of values within social work. However, competences can be written, and assessments carried out, to include underpinning knowledge and values. Another point is that focusing on knowledge, understanding, and values as a coherent whole makes it difficult for students to apply understanding in practical situations that requires selecting from and using knowledge in less comprehensive packages: competence approaches emphasize education based on practical ways in which the knowledge may be used. Other advantages are that competence frameworks define precisely what a student should be able to do, rather than relying on overall judgments of students’ attainment in practice by academic or practice teachers. It also relies on statements about what social workers actually do, rather than theoretical accounts of practice, and is therefore likely to connect rather better with employers’ requirements of their workers. Assessment of detailed competences as part of social work education permits a more explicit and defensible statement of practice assessment, but makes it more difficult to see students’ attainments as part of their holistic development as practitioners (O’Hagan, 2007).
Lifelong Learning, Critical Reflection and the Learning Organization
Most professions have a process for qualified practitioners to engage in continuing professional development (CPD), a lifelong process in which professionals take responsibility for continuing to develop their skills and knowledge. They do this through reflecting on their work and developing and fulfilling learning objectives that will improve their practice (Megginson and Whitaker, 2007). A basic assumption of CPD is that individual professionals are responsible for and create their own program. Where they are employed professionals, however, the organization in which they work needs to become a ‘learning organization’ that facilitates and supports its employees in achieving this (Gould and Baldwin, 2004).
Integral to CPD is that practitioners engage in critical reflection, which puts together three elements of social theory – reflection, reflexivity, and criticality – to describe a way of developing practice skills. Reflection helps professional practitioners plan and do their work with greater understanding of the situations, they are facing and to develop practice theories for professionals. They use the ideas that come out of reflecting on particular incidents to adapt existing theories or create new ones. Reflection is a circular process: you have an experience, reflect upon it and consequently change the way you act in the future. Reflection is crucial to learning from experience or from research, because it enables you to reconstruct or reorganize the experience so that you can use it (Redmond, 2006). Reflexivity derives from qualitative research methods, particularly as applied in feminist research (Finlay and Gough, 2003). It means a cyclical process, in which we study how what we observe affects our thinking and how that then affects what we do. The implication of this is that you incorporate your own and other people’s reactions to an event, so that you do not take for granted your own perceptions. Reflection becomes critical when practitioners use critical social theory, which, in addition to reflexivity, does not take existing patterns of thinking and social organization for granted. This helps because it offers practitioners alternative ideas when shifting their own perceptions and those of clients and colleagues. Critical reflection has recently developed strongly in health and social care (Fook and Gardner, 2007) as both a training and a personal development device.
Through CPD, social work education continues throughout practitioners’ careers, and includes programs of reading, organized personal experience, such as job swaps, shadowing a colleague with different responsibilities, short training courses, and advanced professional and academic qualifications. Advanced qualifications include advanced masters degrees and professional doctorates, which include specialized professional teaching alongside a research thesis. Social workers seeking academic roles, or wishing to undertake a substantial research project, will often complete a PhD instead of a professional doctorate.
Social work education is a process through which practitioners transform their personal identity by incorporating a professional identity as a social worker within it and continue to develop their identity and capacity within the profession during the whole of their career. It may be considered in three phases: prequalification training and experience, including life experience; qualifying education; and career-long CPD.
The institutional and organizational aspects of social work education brings together academic elements delivered within universities and practice elements delivered mainly in social agencies. In this way, social work education incorporates tensions between agency and university interests in controlling the curriculum and outcomes of qualifying education and CPD. The crucial issue in these tensions is the need to incorporate broader social science traditions of learning within a form of education that is also designed to train employees in the procedural and practical requirements of the role of social workers in agencies.
- Boddy, J., Statham, J., 2009. European Perspectives on Social Work: Models of education and professional roles. Thomas Coram Resarch Unit, London.
- Boddy, J., Cameron, C., Moss, P. (Eds.), 2006. Care Work: Present and Future. Routledge, London.
- Bogo, M., 2010. Achieving Competence in Social Work through Field Education. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.
- Burgess, H., 1992. Problem-led Learning for Social Work: The Enquiry and Action Approach. Whiting & Birch, London.
- Carkhuff, R.R., Berenson, B.C., 1977. Beyond Counseling and Therapy, second ed. Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York.
- Carpenter, J., Webb, C., Bostock, L., Coomber, C., 2012. Effective Supervision in Social Work and Social Care. Research Briefing 43. Social Care Institute for Excellence, London.
- Clarke, J., Newman, J., 1997. The Managerial State: Power, Politics and Ideology in the Remaking of Social Welfare. Sage, London.
- Dewey, J., 1910. How We Think. Heath, New York.
- Dominelli, L., 1996. Deprofessionalizing social work: anti-oppressive practice, competencies and postmodernism. British Journal of Social Work 26, 153–175.
- Finlay, L., Gough, B. (Eds.), 2003. Reflexivity: A Practical Guide for Researchers in Health and Social Sciences. Blackwell, Oxford.
- Fook, J., Gardner, F., 2007. Practising Critical Reflection: A Resource Handbook. Open University Press, Maidenhead.
- Gould, N., Baldwin, M. (Eds.), 2004. Social Work, Critical Reflection and the Learning Organization. Ashgate, Farnham.
- Gray, M., Webb, S.A., 2008. The myth of global social work: double standards and the local-global divide. Journal of Progressive Human Services 19, 61–66.
- Hagan, K. (Ed.), 2007. Competence in Social Work Practice: A Practical Guide for Students and Professionals, second ed. Jessica Kingsley, London.
- Hawkins, P., Shohet, R., 2012. Supervision in the Helping Professions, fourth ed. Open University Press, Maidenhead.
- International Federation of Social Workers, 2012. Global Standards. http://ifsw.org/policies/global-standards/
- Jones, C., 1976. The Foundations of Social Work Education. University of Durham, Durham. Working Papers in Sociology 11.
- Kadushin, A., Harkness, D., 2002. Supervision in Social Work, fourth ed. Columbia University Press, New York.
- Kendall, K.A., 1978. The IASSW 1928–1978: a journey of remembrance. In: Kendall, K.A. (Ed.), Reflections of Social Work Education 1950–1978. International Association of Schools of Social Work, New York, pp. 170–191.
- Kendall, K.A., 2000. Social Work Education: Its Origins in Europe. Council on Social Work Education, Alexandria, VA.
- Knowles, M.S., 1984. Andragogy in Action: Applying Modern Principles of Adult Learning. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA.
- Laot, F.F., 2001. Doctoral Studies in Social Work: European Initiatives. Editions de L Ecole Nationale de la Sante Publique, Rennes.
- Leece, J., Peace, S., 2010. Developing new understandings of independence and autonomy in the personalised relationship. British Journal of Social Work 40, 1847–1865.
- Lorenz, W., 1994. Social Work in a Changing Europe. Routledge, London.
- Megginson, D., Whitaker, V., 2007. Continuing Professional Development, second ed. Chartered Institute for Personnel and Development, London.
- Midgley, J., 1981. Professional Imperialism: Social Work in the Third World. Heinemann, London.
- Midgley, M., Conley, A. (Eds.), 2010. Social Work and Social Development: Theories and Skills for Developmental Social Work. Oxford University Press, New York.
- Moriarty, J., 2011. Literature Review for the Curriculum Development Work Stream. Kings College London Social Care Workforce Research Unit, London. https://www.kcl.ac.uk/sspp/policy-institute/scwru/pubs/2011/moriarty2011litreview.pdf
- Noble, C., Hendrickson, M. (Eds.), 2011. Social Work Field Education and Supervision across the Asia Pacific. Sydney University Press, Sydney.
- Papell, C.P., Rothman, B., 1966. Social group work models: possession and heritage. Journal of Education for Social Work 2, 66–73.
- Pawson, R., Boaz, A., Grayson, L., Long, A., Barnes, C., 2003. Types and Quality of Knowledge in Social Care. Social Care Institute for Excellence, London.
- Payne, M., 2004. Social work practice identities: an agency study of a hospice. Practice 16, 5–15.
- Payne, M., 2005. The Origins of Social Work: Continuity and Change. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke.
- Payne, M., 2014. Modern Social Work Theory, fourth ed. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke.
- Payne, M., Askeland, G.A., 2008. Globalization and International Social Work: Postmodern Change and Challenge. Ashgate, Aldershot.
- Pollitt, C., 1993. Managerialism and the Public Services: Cuts or Cultural Change in the 1990s? Blackwell, Oxford.
- Redmond, B., 2006. Reflection in Action: Developing Reflective Practice in Health and Social Services. Ashgate, Farnham.
- Scourfield, J., Maxwell, N., 2008. Social work doctoral students in the UK: a web-based survey and search of the index to theses. British Journal of Social Work 40, 548–566.
- Sewpaul, V., Jones, D., 2005. Global standards for the education and training of the social work profession. International Journal of Social Welfare 14 (3), 218–230.
- Simpura, J. (Ed.), 1995. Social Policy in Transition Societies: Experience from the Baltic Countries and Russia. STAKES, Helsinki.
- Spolander, G., Pullen-Sansfacon, A., Brown, M., Engelbrecht, L., 2011. Social work education in Canada, England and South Africa: a critical comparison of undergraduate programmes. International Social Work 54, 816–831.
- Ungerson, C., 1999. Personal assistants and disabled people: an examination of a hybrid form of work and care. Work, Employment & Society 13, 583–600.
- Urdang, E., 2012. Awareness of self – a critical tool. Social Work Education 29, 523–538.
- Younghusband, E., 1963. Tasks and trends in education for social work: an international appraisal. Social. Work (UK) 20, 4–11.